Illness and Death 5. The Home, Calendar and Clocks 6. Housework 7. Food and Drink and its Preparation 8. Clothing 9. Work, Tools, Slavery Poverty Riches, Trade, Markets, Shopping Town Life, Parks and Gardens Farming, Farm-Work Crafts and Skills, Industry, Machinery, Milling The Imaginative, Spiritual and Intellectual Life The Arts Sports, Games and Entertainment Travel Beggars, Tramps Criminals, the Law But the whole, to continue the same metaphor , consists in the cookery of the author; for, as Mr Pope tells us-- View in context.
When I say petticoat, I use the word in its literal sense, not colloquially as a metaphor for its usual wearer, meaning thereby a dainty feminine undergarment seen only by men on rainy days, and one might add washing-days. I use all the hyperbole of metaphor , and tell what centuries of time and profounds of unthinkable agony and horror can obtain in each interval of all the intervals between the notes of a quick jig played quickly on the piano.
He recollected Cronshaw's whimsical metaphor of the Persian carpet; he had thought of it often; but Cronshaw with his faun-like humour had refused to make his meaning clear: he repeated that it had none unless one discovered it for oneself. You have at all events taken your share in using good practical precautions for the town, and that is the best mode of asking for protection," said Lydgate, with a strong distaste for the broken metaphor and bad logic of the banker's religion, somewhat increased by the apparent deafness of his sympathy.
Indeed, it seems that in defining contraries of every kind men have recourse to a spatial metaphor , for they say that those things are contraries which, within the same class, are separated by the greatest possible distance. Stelling concluded that Tom's brain, being peculiarly impervious to etymology and demonstrations, was peculiarly in need of being ploughed and harrowed by these patent implements; it was his favorite metaphor , that the classics and geometry constituted that culture of the mind which prepared it for the reception of any subsequent crop.
Thesaurus of Traditional English Metaphors
Dictionary browser? The session brings together a number of projects, all of which take a highly data-driven approach to theoretical issues surrounding the study of the lexicon of English, and all of which exploit the unique dataset of the Historical Thesaurus of English HT. The Mapping Metaphor project has established a near-comprehensive picture of the place of metaphor in English over a period of some thirteen centuries, from the Anglo-Saxon period to the present day.
Taking as its starting point that metaphor — a form of systematic connection between semantic domains — can be identified through patterns of lexical overlap between the semantic categories contained in a thesaurus like the HT, the project draws on a combination of computational and manual analysis to pinpoint all of the significant metaphors in the recorded vocabulary of English.
The Metaphor Map features a dynamic, web-based interface that enables users to view and explore metaphors at different levels of specificity through a radial convergence visualisation. A top-level view shows metaphorical connections between 37 superordinate level categories such as The world, Mental capacity, and Communication , while a drill-down view shows those between around basic-level semantic categories such as Body of water, Foolishness, and Correspondence and telecommunications.
Weather is a particularly productive source category for metaphor, with connections to over one third of the other semantic categories, including Age hoar , frosty , Behaviour frostily , Excitement gusty , torrential and Sexual relations sultry. Less commonly, Weather is a target category, while some connections are bi-directional, as with Food slobber , bite and Ill-health breathless, foggy.
A number of the connections can be traced back to the Old English period, through lexical items such as wind , storm and mist. Many other metaphors are much more recent, however, and overall a much weaker presence of metaphor is visible in our Old English data. We argue that this is not primarily attributable to the relative paucity of data, but that it reflects the changing world-views that are also highlighted elsewhere by our results. Mapping Metaphor with the Historical Thesaurus is a linguistics and digital humanities collaboration which provides a data-driven picture of the extent and development of metaphor across the history of English.
It uses a combination of database techniques and expert linguistic analysis to provide full details of the metaphorical links which speakers of English have used to understand the world around them for the past thousand years. One of the project's main outcomes is a database of tens of thousands of links between conceptual categories, such as imagination and biology father, conceive, fertile or beauty and light shine, radiant, lustre , alongside date information and sample words.
While there are a range of other outputs arising from this data, the online resource for exploring the links database - called the Metaphor Map - is a key output of the project. In addition to providing search and browse pathways through the data, there is also a need to provide a high-level visual overview for users.
However, while such data is of huge relevance to scholars in a range of fields, including the study of language, literature, culture, and psychology, the size and complexity of the database provides a significant challenge with regard to displaying these connections to users in a way which makes their relevance clear. This paper therefore discusses the means through which the Metaphor Map has been visualized by the team, including radial arc techniques, network diagrams, and treemap structures.
We will demonstrate the importance of such visualizations to guide research on the database, and provide information from our feedback sessions on the understandability of such complex data. In so doing, we also aim to demonstrate the widespread, systematic and far-reaching impact of metaphor on English. Hough and E.
Thesaurus of Traditional English Metaphors - P.R. Wilkinson - Google книги
Mapping Metaphor with the Historical Thesaurus is an AHRC-funded research project at Glasgow University —; PI Anderson , investigating the nature and extent of metaphor in English through comprehensive analysis of lexical overlap between semantic domains. The analysis is diachronic and data-driven, using the database underlying the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary This poster outlines the project, displays visualisations of the interactive resource, and presents two case studies illustrating the potential for onomastic research. Its manifestations in place-names include terms for the internal and external body, human and animal e.
Our results suggest that references to clothing e. The project has identified previously unrecognised metaphors, including in Old English only links between the domains of light and warfare e. The domain of warfare is strongly represented in Germanic anthroponomy, so we suggest that this may account for terms such as beorht in Anglo-Saxon personal names e.
Beorhtric, Hunbeorht. The 'Mapping Metaphor with the Historical Thesaurus' project, currently being undertaken at the University of Glasgow, is creating an interactive 'Metaphor Map' for English, which will show the metaphorical connections between semantic domains made by speakers and writers of English from the Old English period to the present day. This data provides an excellent background from which to explore the long-standing questions of semantic domains and the directionality of metaphor, the focus of this paper. The complex hierarchical semantic structure of the HT has been adapted and simplified for Mapping Metaphor to produce semantically coherent categories e.
The lexical content of each of these categories in turn is then compared automatically with the lexical content of every other category, to produce a database of lexical overlap between categories. Detailed manual analysis is then undertaken for each pair of categories, to identify the overlap which is a result of systematic metaphorical connections, and discard the significantly larger amount of overlap which is due to homonymy and to polysemy resulting from mechanisms other than metaphor.
This methodology offers us a new perspective from which to clarify the nature of a semantic domain and a new, more comprehensive, framework within which to investigate examples of apparent bi-directionality of metaphorical connections between domains, such as that between the domains of 'Textiles' and 'Imagination' cf. Completion of the Historical Thesaurus of English project HT has opened up new possibilities for the study of the English lexicon. Users of the latter should note a that it is under revision and therefore not an exact match for the other versions, which are based on the second edition of the OED, and b that it does not contain Old English words unrecorded after The HT database contains some , word forms arranged in , semantic categories, linked vertically by relationships such as hyponymy and meronymy and horizontally by synonymy and, to a lesser extent, antonymy.
Automatic routines enable links between categories in this hierarchy to be identified and quantified through tracking of recurrent word forms. In a current project, Mapping Metaphor with the Historical Thesaurus www. This paper will describe these procedures and the problems involved in applying them, such as the elimination of homonymy and unmotivated polysemy. It will focus particularly on issues for historical linguists in identifying metaphors, such as semantic change, both within English and in source languages, and shifting world-views.
Discussion will centre on a case study of metaphorical links evidenced in categories of Supernatural Phenomena, including Deity, Angel, Devil, Heaven and Hell.
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It is hypothesized that these categories will link to concepts in the physical, emotional and moral universes, and that decisions about metaphor will need to take account of prevailing world-views, such as belief or otherwise in the 'reality' of the supernatural. The resource is the first comprehensive historical thesaurus for any language, and was produced using data from the Oxford English Dictionary 2nd Edition and supplementary Old English materials as its basis.
This talk introduces a progeny of the Historical Thesaurus :the AHRC-funded 'Mapping Metaphor' project which investigates the nature and extent of metaphor in the language system of English, from Old English to the present day. The analysis is data-driven and uses the database underlying the Historical Thesaurus , reusing and repurposing the lexicographical material to discover conceptual links through a comprehensive identification and analysis of the lexical overlap between semantic domains.
The results will be available online, as a 'Metaphor Map' of the whole of English, showing where and when these links have occurred. The Mapping Metaphor project will be discussed through a case-study of the domain of Imagination, a highly abstract area which links metaphorically to domains such as Sight, Movement, Textiles, Shape and Air. Visualisations will be used to graphically illustrate these links, alongside a beta-version of the online 'Metaphor Map'.
Aitken and R. Poster presented at DH, Lausanne, July In this poster, we demonstrate a major new digital resource, the 'Metaphor Map' of English, which is opening up empirical research into linguistic and conceptual metaphor on a scale never before possible. We will also discuss our source data, the Historical Thesaurus of English , the new methodology which underpins our research, and our results from the semantic domain of Colour.
Finally, we will outline the significance of the resource for Digital Humanities and for research and teaching in metaphor studies. Paper presented at DH, Lausanne, July This paper focuses on the history of the English lexicon, and on a new approach to this history through the database of the Historical Thesaurus of English Kay et al. This space is described in this paper as the total accumulation of the various individual semantic fields which make up the language, as represented in the Historical Thesaurus' database.
The Concise Thesaurus of Traditional English Metaphors
The paper therefore analyses the size of the English lexicon in these semantic clusters over time, including its metaphorical links, and aims to give a digital analysis of the history of English in ways which were previously not possible. This paper will focus on metaphor in the language system of English, and will provide an overview of the metaphorical connections which have been available to speakers and writers of the language since the Old English period. A beta-version of the Map will be presented. The complex hierarchical semantic structure of the HT has been adapted and simplified within the context of Mapping Metaphor to produce three hierarchical levels, with semantically coherent categories at the lowest level e.
source The lexical content of each of these categories in turn has then been compared automatically with the lexical content of every other category, to produce a database of lexical overlap between categories.