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He worked with many theatre groups e. In Hamburg he tried with others to set up the German National Theatre. Today his own works appear as prototypes of the later developed bourgeois German drama. Lessing advocated that dramaturgs should carry their work out working directly with theatre companies rather than in isolation. In his religious and philosophical writings he defended the faithful Christian's right for freedom of thought. He argued against the belief in revelation and the holding on to a literal interpretation of the Bible by the predominant orthodox doctrine through a problem later to be called Lessing's Ditch.

Lessing outlined the concept of the religious "Proof of Power": How can miracles continue to be used as a base for Christianity when we have no proof of miracles? Historical truths which are in doubt cannot be used to prove metaphysical truths such as God's existence.

Hamburg Dramaturgy

As Lessing says it: "That, then, is the ugly great ditch which I cannot cross, however often and however earnestly I have tried to make that leap. In the final leg of his life, Lessing threw himself into an intense evaluation of theology and religion.

He did much of his studying by reading manuscripts he found while working as a librarian. While working for the Duke, he formed a close friendship with a family by the name of Reimarus. The family held an unpublished manuscript by Hermann Samuel Reimarus which attacked the historicity of Christian revelation.

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Despite discouragement from his brother Karl Gotthelf Lessing , he began publishing pieces of the manuscript in pamphlets known as Fragments from an Unnamed Author. The controversial pamphlets resulted in a heated debate between him and another theologian, Johann Melchior Goeze.


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In concern for tarnishing his reputation, Goeze requested the government put an end to the feud, and Lessing was silenced through a law that took away his freedom from censorship. In response, Lessing relied upon his skills as a playwright to write what is undoubtedly his most influential play, Nathan the Wise. In the play, Lessing set up tension between Judaism, Islam, and Christianity by having one character ask Nathan which religion was the most genuine.

Nathan avoids the question by telling the parable of the three rings, which implies the idea that no specific religion is the "correct religion. Nathan the Wise is considered to be the first example of the German "literature of humanity". As a child of the Enlightenment he trusted in a "Christianity of Reason", which oriented itself by the spirit of religion. He believed that human reason initiated by criticism and dissent would develop, even without help by a divine revelation. In his writing The Education of Humankind Die Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts he extensively and coherently lays out his position.

The idea of freedom for the theatre against the dominance of its French model; for religion from the church's dogma is his central theme throughout his life. Therefore, he also stood up for the liberation of the upcoming middle and upper class from the nobility making up their minds for them. In his own literary existence he also constantly strove for independence.


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  • But his ideal of a possible life as a free author was hard to keep up against the economic constraints he faced. His project of authors self-publishing their works, which he tried to accomplish in Hamburg with C. Bode , failed. In this work, he argues against the tendency to take Horace 's ut pictura poesis as painting, so poetry as prescriptive for literature.

    In other words, he objected to trying to write poetry using the same devices as one would in painting. Instead, poetry and painting each has its character the former is extended in time; the latter is extended in space. This is related to Lessing's turn from French classicism to Aristotelian mimesis , discussed above. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Poetry portal. Brecht's home life was comfortably middle class, despite what his occasional attempt to claim peasant origins implied.

    At school in Augsburg he met Caspar Neher. Neher designed many of the sets for Brecht's dramas and helped to forge the distinctive visual iconography of their epic theatre; when Brecht was 16, the First World War broke out. Enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his classmates "swallowed by the army".

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    Brecht was nearly expelled from school in for writing an essay in response to the line " Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" from the Roman poet Horace, calling it Zweckpropaganda and arguing that only an empty-headed person could be persuaded to die for their country, his expulsion was only prevented through the intervention of his religion teacher.

    On his father's recommendation, Brecht sought a loophole by registering for a medical course at Munich University , where he enrolled in There he studied drama with Arthur Kutscher , who inspired in the young Brecht an admiration for the iconoclastic dramatist and cabaret-star Frank Wedekind. From July , Brecht's newspaper articles began appearing under the new name "Bert Brecht". Brecht was drafted into military service in the autumn of , only to be posted back to Augsburg as a medical orderly in a military VD clinic.

    In Brecht's mother died; some time in either or , Brecht took a small part in the political cabaret of the Munich comedian Karl Valentin. Brecht's diaries for the next few years record numerous visits to see Valentin perform. Brecht compared Valentin to Charlie Chaplin , for his "virtually complete rejection of mimicry and cheap psychology ". He did short sketches in which he played refractory employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employers and made them look ridiculous.

    The employer was played by his partner, Liesl Karlstadt , a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself out and speak in a deep bass voice. Brecht's first full-length play, arose in response to an argument in one of Kutscher's drama seminars, initiating a trend that persisted throughout his career of creative activity, generated by a desire to counter another work. Between November and April Brecht made acquaintance with many influential people in the Berlin cultural scene. Brecht changed the spelling of his first name to Bertolt to rhyme with Arnolt.

    In while still living in Munich , Brecht came to the attention of an influential Berlin critic, Herbert Ihering : "At 24 the writer Bert Brecht has changed Germany's literary complexion overnight"—he enthused in his review of Brecht's first play to be produced, Drums in the Night—" has given our time a new tone, a new melody, a new vision. It is a language you can feel on your tongue, in your gums, your ear, your spinal column.

    The citation for the award insisted that: language is vivid without being deliberately poetic, symbolical without being over literary. Brecht is a dramatist; that year he married the Viennese opera-singer Marianne Zoff. Their daughter—Hanne Hiob —was a successful German actress. In , Brecht wrote a scenario for what was to become a short slapstick film.

    Hamburg Dramaturgy

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    The Hamburg Dramaturgy by G.E. Lessing

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    Presentations — Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff. It was destroyed in April in a bombing raid; the construction of the theatre, for around , Mark, was notable since it was the first new theatre built in Berlin since the construction of the Wallner Theater in By order of director Oscar Blumenthal , the building, designed in a Renaissance Revival style by the architects Hermann von der Hude and Julius Hennicke , was constructed in less than a year, between October and September ; the theatre opened on 11 September Wedged between the Stadtbahn railway viaduct and the firewall of the building nextdoor , it made for a difficult design of a prestigious building; the architects designed a cupola above the podium that covered up the firewall, the front facade with its portico turned the street corner into a kind of vestibule.

    The remaining triangular outside areas were set off from the street with lattice work and gates and functioned as gardens. The location was commercially viable; the horsecars which passed in front of the theatre made the theatre accessible from all neighbourhoods. The staircases leading to the spectators' areas were combined with the rest of the house, its function as a theatre was indicated by the facade's vestibule, the double pillars, the gable. The towers with double arcades above the staircases were designed with an eye on the building's appearance from afar, but emphasized the building's character; the middle part was dominated by the stalls, while the appearance from the rear was determined by the roof of the stage.

    Spectators entered the theatre through one of three doors in the vestibule, equipped with a roof to protect unloading horse cars; the lobby measured Ticket counters were placed on either side of the lobby, with doors beside them that gave access to the second storey balconies.

    Erving Goffman's Dramaturgy

    Doors directly across from the entrance led to the first level of balconies. After the show, spectators from the stalls left the theatre through two separate doors on the side of the theatre or through the main lobby. Spectators from the first and second rows of balconies had special exits through the staircases, so they would not have to cross the lobby again; this allowed the theatre to empty and permitted shorter time periods between two shows.