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N2 - Traditional power grids are currently being transformed into smart grids SGs. AB - Traditional power grids are currently being transformed into smart grids SGs. Cognitive radio for smart grids Survey of architectures, spectrum sensing mechanisms, and networking protocols.

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Cognitive radio networks

Abstract Traditional power grids are currently being transformed into smart grids SGs. Fingerprint Cognitive radio. Telecommunication networks. Power generation. An efficient circulated channel task for a multi-hop CRN has been proposed by the authors that depends just on data given by the two imparting CR users. Utilizing an agreeable task among neighboring CR users, the proposed distributed scheme improves the CRN throughput. The main design goal of this protocol is to maximize network throughput by allowing several simultaneous transmissions to perform at the highest possible rate.

A common channel has been assigned for control purposes. Nodes not transmitting always have one of their two receivers listening to the CCC, while receiving data over the other chain can alleviate the hidden terminal problem in the multi-channel scenario. To decrease the possibility of collision, every CR node i keeps up a list of channels that are available AC i and a list of nodes that are busy BN i.

AC i comprises channels that are not occupied and are free to use. BN i comprises the identification of nodes currently transmitting or getting information bundles in the area of node i. Imagine a scenario where CR i has an information bundle to transmit to CR j. After getting an RTS bundle from node i , the expected recipient, for instance node j , utilizes AC i alongside its own particular AC i to decide the fitting channel and rate to be used for the information delivery. It consists of four stages of the cognition cycle, namely observe stage, plan stage, decide stage and act stage.

During the observing stage, a neighbor list foundation system is acquainted with a record of the spectrum use circumstance of the PU and SU. An SU uses this list to perceive the spectrum utilization in its neighborhood. The plan stage consist of two major functions. One is to make sure that an SU is not interfering with a licensed user, and the other one is to use the free spectrum efficiently. To achieve these functionalities a contention resolution system joined with gating, straight backoff and slow down shirking is proposed to upgrade the throughput and access deferral and decency of the protocol.

To guarantee agreeable QoS on the built-up ad hoc connection, an invited reservation strategy is presented in the chosen stage; to advise users of the initial time of the Contention-Free Period CFP and a Contention Period CP in each round.

Performance analysis of wireless-powered cognitive radio networks with ambient backscatter

The act stage includes the distributed frame synchronization mechanism for SU. These MAC protocols divide time into slots, offering an inherent collision-free scheme for the control channel, as well as for the data transmission. For example, energy efficient cognitive radio multichannel ECR-MAC [ 71 ] uses explicit frequency negotiation and time negotiation to achieve power savings by having an idle node go to sleep mode.

In the following subsections, we analyze some of the time-slotted MAC protocols in more detail. A dedicated CCC is assumed to be available, and each CR device is furnished with dual half-duplex transceivers, called the switch and the information transceivers. To determine in the whole network the spectrum opportunity, P-MAC executes distributed sensing. Time synchronization is employed to delay or to stop the auxiliary transmission and decides the system-wide spectral occurrences. In P-MAC, the identifying data are shared by the nodes and conserve the information of the state of the channels in the entire system for sensing and to keep the rights of the PUs.


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Similar to IEEE The data transceiver is additionally in charge of fine detecting and quick detecting. The data transceiver stays in the snooze state at points where there is no information to send and receive. Figure 5 shows the P-MAC time-channel area structure. CAD permits the auxiliary node to use various channels in parallel for data transmission that are not being in use by PUs. It can productively distribute the upper-limited power resource for the chosen channels in view of the channel qualities through joint power-channel allocation and information radio.

CAD-MAC offers two mutual power-channel provision schemes; one is the ideal allocation strategy through dynamic programming to maximize the transmission rate, and the other is a corresponding allocation strategy, which uses fractional programming for optimizing energy efficiency. In view of the joint power channel assignment approach, the node can use the channel to transmit many information packets in one transmission round.

Then, the origin-destination pair can transmit using the selected data channels. Concurrent Access MAC CA-MAC [ 75 ] tries to achieve low access delay by creating several communication pairs concurrently, which are able to start transmission simultaneously. Each node has two radio front-ends for control signals and data transmission. Therefore, control overhearing and data transmission are concurrently possible. In CA-MAC, each channel has a unique time slot, and each channel is accessed only in a time slot associated with channels. SCL is an arranged list of all of the channels available to members, which is based on accessibility, while CCL is a local list of channels available between a communication pair.

In each time slot, all of the nodes set their listening radio to the associated channel.

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The sender chooses the first free channel from the CCL and sends the channel reservation request. Once the request is received, during the signaling period, the receiver checks the channel. When the channel is being used, the receiver suggests the next free channel from CCL.

Otherwise, it sends the acknowledgment packet to the sender. By overhearing the channel reservation between a pair, other nodes update their available channel information, so they do not attempt to use the reserved channel. Li et al. Channel access time is distributed into superframes; see Figure 7. The beacon time is issued by the Cluster-Head CH , which has time synchronization information for cluster control, cluster ID, the CH and the channel hopping sequence. Intra-cluster communication and inter-cluster communication are done through the CH.

In addition to this, a database that restores spectrum occupancy history is introduced. For each origin-destination pair, CH defines access scheduling of the channel.

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Nodes not participating in the communication tune to different frequencies making decisions using the experience-based channel hopping sequence to perform neighbor discovery. Using this method, the proposed cluster-based MAC protocol does not need a specific period for neighbor discovery. The proposed MAC protocol forms a cluster based on node geographical position, available channel and experienced statistic.

During the first round of neighbor discovery, information from the neighbors is collected, and a value is assigned to links to those neighbors. At the subsequent round of neighbor disclosure, nodes share their link value. Later, according to these values, nodes start forming clusters. After cluster formation, each member in the cluster is controlled by the cluster head. A collision-free multichannel protocol is proposed in [ 77 ] for wireless ad hoc networks.

It considers QoS as a main parameter for single-hop scenarios. The resource sharing technique approves the optimized circulation of time slots between nodes. The technique is capable of improving the assignment of communication resources by considering the QoS requirements. This assignment gives more data transfer capacity and decreases delay to access resources for users with more execution necessities.

The proposed protocol uses time slots and impact free, as an entrance window is given in each slot. Slots are divided into mini-slots where the nodes exploit them by using reservation with a specific end goal to attempt each one in turn to get to the accessible channel. It is assumed that all of the nodes are synchronized, and the time is partitioned into periods comprising control time, sensing period and time slots for transmission.

The control time frame is utilized to exchange notification in the network about nodes that are leaving or joining, so that every node can overhaul, as its ID needs to be. IDs determine the node access request to the network. In particular, the access window is separated into mini slots, and the highest number of mini-slots is compelled by the length of the time slot and the entrance window. To avoid interference, each BP is additionally divided on the basis of time; thus, nodes avoid interference and exchange information by using the negotiation of channel usage.

C-MAC superframe structure. For node coordination in different channels, among all available channel, a Rendezvous Channel RC is chosen dynamically and in a way that channels can be utilized for a very long time all through the network, without intrusion. The RC channel is also used for PU detection, for the interchange of the programs for the BP, as well as neighbor discovery and network-wide communication. The CR user starts with identifying vacant spectrum resources. In the case of hearing a beacon in any of the available bands, CR may adapt to global RC specified in the beacon and join that specific band.

Moreover, the CR node informs its neighbor about other devices by re-broadcasting the beacon packet. Before using any band, and for resynchronization, the CR user needs to tune to RC periodically and transmit its beacon information and all of the changes that occurred in the spectrum.


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  6. In addition, C-MAC uses node traffic reservation information by collecting the load measurements from the analysis of beacons to balance the load in the network. Hybrid protocols are partially synchronized and partially random. In he general approach, control signaling follows over the corresponding time slots where the data communication scheme might be based on random channel access.

    In another approach, we might have a superframe with predefined durations that is shared with every user in the network, while the channel access may be completely random in each control or data duration. On the other hand, intra-cluster communication is accomplished on the Data Channel DC nominated by the cluster.