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French in stores. The children demonstrated a good awareness of how rules shift depending on place and people. They manage those transitions and movements expertly. And they know it and are proud of it. My findings suggest that young children have an explicit awareness of their own language repertoires, are extremely proud of them, and also know that everyone in their family has a very distinct repertoire.

Instead of rules, ideologies of language were revealed instead. My participants often discussed ideologies about who should use what language, and in what place. There were a few instances where rules came up. I am thinking particularly of one participant who worked in a corporate business firm. She had francophone clients that she was expected to speak French with.

Overall, I found that my participants wanted their language choice to be a choice. Even if the outcome was the same e. Casey : I think that many of the realities of our research speak back to the experience of living in an intercultural province within a larger multicultural national framework and the ways in which multilingual citizens live and language across dominant language policies.

What we see in our polyvocal reflections is that individuals make use of language resources differently and agentively in and across their social contexts and spaces and that this is always informed by ideologies; this is met with either resistance to or alignment with top-down rules. In all our work, we have found a strong sense of agency in individuals to negotiate and perform language identities that do not always align with official policy frameworks. In the next section, we frame our discussion of key insights from the polyvocal reflections around our theoretical stance that draws on intersections of three aspects of language policy practices, ideologies, management and interculturalism.

In order to bring to light such understandings, we posed the following questions:.

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There is clearly a diversity of issues that were revealed across our various research projects and that also intersect: the fluidity of language practices and identities, race, visuality, individual agency, explicit local strategies for language management, and public dissent. We discovered that space and context affect language ideologies, practices, and rules.

For example, Alison noted that the children in her study understood what fixed language rules were, but they also engaged in fluid language practices in their different social spaces. In other words, their language practices were shaped by the space and context that they inhabited in any given moment. With respect to language management, it is evident that language rules manifest in ways that are sometimes unpredictable and problematic.

Emerging from our discussion, the different ways that language rules can manifest were revealed.

Through the stories told and reflected on here, we see that language rules are much more than policy; rather, language rules can manifest in ways that can be ideological, formal as in educational settings regarding language of instruction , as well as technical and rules related to lexis and syntax. Further to this, Sumanthra touched on how mechanical rules of language can be used as markers of belonging and identity, especially in terms of how heritage language learners feel accepted in their communities and their identity.

Sumanthra made us wonder how heritage language learners who break the rules of grammar, for example, might be affected. She talked about how the children in her study expertly managed these rules through code-switching. How do individuals outside of urban centres language within, around, and speak back to interculturalism and language policy? As scholars engaged in living and researching issues of belonging, identity, language, and diversity, we suggest that multilingual citizens manage their language practices differently depending on their audience and depending on where they are speaking.

What, we wonder, gives us permission to privilege particular language practices in particular areas, even when these practices work against existing language policies? As citizens operating within this intercultural context, we learn about the spaces where dominant language practices belong, and the different spaces where we are permitted to draw on our multilingual resources. Instead, we find, in all our projects, instances of individual agency, resistance, and creativity.

Whether the policy context for local living and languaging bears an intercultural or multicultural label is less important than the commonalities across contexts. Only a high-resolution, close-up look will reveal what is really happening as individuals fashion languaging practices to suit their ever-changing, often very challenging surroundings. Abdallah-Pretceille, M. Paris: Economica, Antropos.

Arnold, C. Polyvocal ethnography as a means of developing inter-cultural understanding of pedagogy and practice. Burawoy, M. Revisits: An outline of a theory of reflexive ethnography. American sociological review , Burkholder, C. My neighbourhood is multilingual.


Also, best. Crump, A. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. McGill University. Mirvahedi Eds. London: Routledge. Cummins, J. A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. Modern Language Journal , Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Gergen, K.

The Multiple Realities of Multilingualism - Elka Todeva - Innbundet () » Bokkilden

Social construction: A reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

What is our research about? Who are we working with? What methods are we using?

Godfrey-Smith, Lauren. Haque, E. Multiculturalism within a bilingual framework: Language, race, and belonging in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Heller, M.

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Bilingualism as ideology and practice. Heller Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Lamarre, P. Schecter Eds.

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Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. International Journal of the Sociology of Language , , Anthropologica , 55 1 , 41— Mady, C. Allophone students in French second-official-language programs: A literature review. Canadian Modern Language Review , 63 5 , Access to French as a second official language programs in English-dominant Canada. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 57 4 , Learning French as a second language — Reserved for Anglophones?

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Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 99 , May, S. Language and minority rights: Ethnicity, nationalism and the politics of language. London and New York: Pearson Longman. Language rights: Moving the debate forward. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9 3 , — Maxwell, B.


Interculturalism, multiculturalism, and the state funding and regulation of conservative religious schools. Educational theory , 62 4 , Meer, N. How does interculturalism contrast with multiculturalism?. Journal of intercultural studies , 33 2 , Official Languages Act. Pithouse-Morgan, K.

Entering an ambiguous space: Evoking polyvocality in educational research through collective poetic inquiry. Perspectives in Education , 32 4 , Sarkar, M. Getting into med school or becoming a healer? Western medical education and Indigenous knowledges. Langdon Ed. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

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Seidle, F. Fossum, P. Magnette and J. Poirier Eds. Brussels: Peter Lang. Shohamy, E.